When a writer has a deadline to meet and a word count to fill, it is tempting to make sentences wordier, opting for flowery descriptions rather than powerful prose. Editors will watch for this kind of extra wording and will often delete it in bulk, leaving sentences tighter and more efficient. Filler words also tend to make written pieces boring, turning reading into drudgery when the reader would rather get straight to the point.
The following examples show words that are often overused in writing or are used to fill in space where they are otherwise not needed. Writers should look for these instances in their existing work and fix them wherever possible. They should also make a conscious effort while writing to avoid using such words and instead focus on actions and more pointed descriptors.
Examples in Concise Writing
Lose “that.” “That” is one of those words having virtually no purpose other than taking up space. Take this sentence, for example: “She promised that she would never make the same mistake twice.” Removing “that,” the sentence is just as clear: “She promised she would never make the same mistake twice.”
You “really just only” need to say what you mean. “He really just needed only one car but purchased a second,” would do better as, “He needed one car but purchased a second.” These three words are as annoying to editors and readers as “very,” which is another no-no.
“She was almost slightly drifting on what seemed like air.” Words like “almost,” “slightly,” and “seeming/seems” are boring! These give readers little direction. Saying something is “almost” something tells a reader that it may or may not be, and they will never know. “She was drifting on air,” paints an immediate and clear picture in the reader’s mind.
“Basically,” the word “absolutely” is “actually” unnecessary. If the subject of the sentence is “actually” something, using words like these become redundant. “She was positively certain she would win,” is better written as, “She was certain she would win.”
In descriptive sentences, phrases like “kind of,” “sort of,” and “a little,” convey nothing and are better left out. Readers do not want wishy-washy writing; they want the writer to speak directly and confidently. This builds trust in the writer’s work. “His speech was sort of a hit,” sounds much stronger as, “His speech was a hit!”
Finally, “very” should never be included unless it is vital: for example, in a direct quote. If a descriptor in a sentence is strong enough, this word makes the sentence weak and shows no effort on the writer’s part to convey deeper meaning. Instead of saying, “She was very mad,” remove “very” and try “irate,” “fuming,” or “infuriated.”
In short, writing concisely provides readers a clean, clear read. Readers appreciate this because it allows them to read faster and gain more insight and information, and it holds their attention better than filler words. If a writer needs help getting into this good habit, a thesaurus is a great tool to have handy while writing.
Satire uses humor and irony to criticize society, individuals, or other subjects satirists consider worthy of ridicule. In February of this year, The Independent asked, “Donald Trump has at least made American satire great again – but why didn’t Brexit do the same for Britain?”
The Trump presidency is prime material for satire in this country. The tweeter-in-chief provides plenty of sources for satirists in the media. But what about in American literature?
American Literature Has a Rich History of Satire
Satire has a long history in the U.S., as revealed in Sophia McClennen’s and Remy Maisel’s book, “Is Satire Saving Our Nation?” Cartoons lampooning the English king were popular before the country’s independence. Mark Twain and Benjamin Franklin wrote satire as critics of the culture and politics of their time. Franklin’s “A Witch Trial in Mount Holly” targeted superstition; and a theme of Mark Twain’s “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” was a critique of the 19th century society of his time.
Joseph Heller’s “Catch-22” is fiction that demonstrates the diverse uses of satire. Heller skillfully revealed the difference between reality and appearance. Kurt Vonnegut and Chester Himes have also demonstrated the variety in consciously written American satire.
But sometime satire is not consciously produced. For instance, Paul Beatty has also used satire to discuss race and class; but he doesn’t write satire consciously, as he revealed in an interview published in The Paris Review.
Satirical Fiction in the Trump Era
From the colonial period to the present, Americans have responded to satire. The president is a divisive figure as America moves into the minority-majority era. His polarizing politics provide ‘red meat’ for his base and a foil for satirists on both sides of the Atlantic writing fiction inspired by his actions. For example, American satirist Andrew Shaffer wrote “The Day of the Donald: Trump Trumps America,” a thriller and a parody.
British author Howard Jacobson’s “Pussy” is a satirical fable inspired by the newly elected president, while Marc Rosenthal’s and Michael Ian Black’s visual “A Child’s First Book of Trump” is a picture-book that contains humor only adults can appreciate. These satirists have taken the lead that others can follow.
Writing Satire Well Requires Skill
Satire can be humorous; but not all satire is humorous. Humor is a powerful tool in the right hands; Americans respond well to humorous satire as delivered by America’s current television satirists. Through comedy the audience is exposed to subjects deserving criticism. With growing pushback against dissent, is this the time for a new golden age of satirical fiction?